Therapeutic Grade Essential Oil to recover apoptosis
in cancer cells.  Essential Oils are food for health, through education!

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Orange & Lemon Essential Oils
and Cancer

Therapeutic Grade Lemon and Orange essential oils contains approximately 59-73% and 85-96% d-limonene (DL) respectively and d-limonene is a monoterpene (MT). Lemon essential Oil has an proximately ORAC of 6,619 (TE/L) and is cold-pressed from the rinds of lemons. Jean Valnet MD estimated that it takes 3,000 lemons to produce one kilo of oil. Orange Essential Oil has an proximately ORAC of 18,898 (TE/L).

Studies have shown that limonene and monoterpenes specifically, affect positively liver enzymes. Limonen increase the levels of liver enzymes involved in detoxifying carcinogens. The Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a system which eliminates carcinogens. Limonene seems to promote the GST system in the liver and small bowel, thereby decreasing the damaging effects of carcinogens. Animal studies demonstrated that dietary limonene reduced mammary tumor growth.

A study by Mark Brudnak, Ph.D. ND  explains how monoterpenes (MTs), found in essential oils offer hope in the struggle to prevent and treat tumors. The best news is that DL and POH can not only prevent but also treat altered cells. The MTs can act before a cancer is established and where degeneration is already present, they can cause a regression of the tumor.

First, during the initiation phase of carcinogenesis they induce Phase-II carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, resulting in carcinogen detoxification. An example of such a Phase-II enzyme would be glutathione S-transferase.

Second, post initiation phase, they have been shown to increase cell redifferentiation. This causes the cells to take on a more normal morphology.

Third, they can induce apoptosis in otherwise immortalized (see above) cells.

Fourth, they have been shown to inhibit the isoprenylation  of the cellular products (Ras ) of oncogenes. Simply put, the proteins from oncogenes, which on the whole are cell-growth regulating proteins, need to be modified by a process called prenylation in order to be placed in a membrane where they are active. If the proteins from oncogenes do not undergo isoprenylation, they do not cause the cell to behave erratically and hence cell degeneration inhibition results.

Cancer Chemoprevention and Therapy by Monoterpenes
Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53792, USA

Monoterpenes are found in the essential oils of many plants including fruits, vegetables, and herbs. They prevent the carcinogenesis process at both the initiation and promotion/progression stages. In addition, monoterpenes are effective in treating early and advanced cancers.

Monoterpenes such as limonene and perillyl alcohol have been shown to prevent mammary, liver, lung, and'other cancers. These compounds have also been used to treat a variety of rodent cancers, including breast and pancreatic carcinomas. In addition, in vitro data suggest that they may be effective in treating neuroblastomas and leukemias. Both limonene and perillyl alcohol are currently being evaluated in phase-I clinical trials in advanced cancer patients.

The monoterpenes have several cellular and molecular activities that could potentially underlie their positive therapeutic index. The monoterpenes inhibit the isoprenylation of small G-proteins. Such inhibitions could alter signal transduction and result in altered gene expression.

The results of a new gene expression screen-subtractive display-have identified or confirmed several up or downregulated genes in regressing mammary carcinomas. For example, these regressing tumors overexpress the mannose 6-phosphate/IGF II receptor. The product of the gene both degrades the mammary tumor mitogen IGF II and activates the cytostatic factor TGF-beta.

These and other alterations in the gene expression of mammary carcinomas lead to a G1 cell cycle block, followed by apoptosis, redifferentiation, and finally complete tumor regression in which tumor parenchyma is replaced by stromal elements. It is likely that monoterpenes prevent mammary cancer during their progression stage by mechanisms similar to those that occur during therapy. In contrast, prevention of mammary cancer by polycyclic hydrocarbons such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene occur by the induction of detoxifying phase-II hepatic enzymes.Go top


This may not be the complete list of references from this article:

TE/L  is expressed as micromole Trolox equivalent per liter
Cancer-Preventing Properties of Essential Oil Monoterpenes D-Limonene and Perillyl Alcohol. by Mark Brudnak, Ph.D. ND. listed in cancer, originally published in issue 53 - June 2000
van Lieshout EMM, Bedaf MMG, Pieter M, Ekkel C, Nijhoff WA and Peters WHM. Effects of dietary anticarcinogens on rat gastrointestinal glutathione S-transferase theta 1-1 levels. Carcinogenesis 19 (11): 2055-2057. 1998
Galli I, Uchiyama M, Wang TSF. DNA Replication and Order of Cell Cycle Events: A Role for Protein Isoprenylation? Biol. Chem. 378: 963-973. 1997
Yamamoto T, Taya S, Kaibuchi K. Ras-Induced Transformation and Signalling Pathway. J. Biochem. 126: 799-803. 1999
Crowell PL, Gould MN. Chemoprevention and therapy of cancer by d-limonene. Crit Rev Oncog. 1994;5(1):1–22
Elegbede JA, Elson CE, Qureshi A, Tanner MA, Gould MN. Inhibition of DMBA-induced mammary cancer by the monoterpene d-limonene. Carcinogenesis. 1984 May;5(5):661–664
Elson CE, Maltzman TH, Boston JL, Tanner MA, Gould MN. Anti-carcinogenic activity of d-limonene during the initiation and promotion/progression stages of DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 1988 Feb;9(2):331–332
Haag JD, Lindstrom MJ, Gould MN. Limonene-induced regression of mammary carcinomas. Cancer Res. 1992 Jul 15;52(14):4021–4026
Haag JD, Gould MN. Mammary carcinoma regression induced by perillyl alcohol, a hydroxylated analog of limonene. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1994;34(6):477–483
Stark MJ, Burke YD, McKinzie JH, Ayoubi AS, Crowell PL. Chemotherapy of pancreatic cancer with the monoterpene perillyl alcohol. Cancer Lett. 1995 Sep 4;96(1):15–21
Gould MN, Moore CJ, Zhang R, Wang B, Kennan WS, Haag JD. Limonene chemoprevention of mammary carcinoma induction following direct in situ transfer of v-Ha-ras. Cancer Res.1994 Jul 1;54(13):3540–3543
Crowell PL, Ren Z, Lin S, Vedejs E, Gould MN. Structure-activity relationships among monoterpene inhibitors of protein isoprenylation and cell proliferation. Biochem Pharmacol.1994 Apr 20;47(8):1405–1415
Crowell PL, Chang RR, Ren ZB, Elson CE, Gould MN. Selective inhibition of isoprenylation of 21-26-kDa proteins by the anticarcinogen d-limonene and its metabolites. J Biol Chem. 1991 Sep 15;266(26):17679–17685
Ren Z, Gould MN. Inhibition of ubiquinone and cholesterol synthesis by the monoterpene perillyl alcohol. Cancer Lett. 1994 Jan 30;76(2-3):185–190
Gelb MH, Tamanoi F, Yokoyama K, Ghomashchi F, Esson K, Gould MN. The inhibition of protein prenyltransferases by oxygenated metabolites of limonene and perillyl alcohol.Cancer Lett. 1995 May 8;91(2):169–175
Jirtle RL, Haag JD, Ariazi EA, Gould MN. Increased mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor and transforming growth factor beta 1 levels during monoterpene-induced regression of mammary tumors. Cancer Res. 1993 Sep 1;53(17):3849–3852
Kornfeld S. Structure and function of the mannose 6-phosphate/insulinlike growth factor II receptors. Annu Rev Biochem. 1992;61:307–330

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* This statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent disease.

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